The abkhazian alphabet has been changed several times. Initially it was based on russian alphabet, then the latin alphabet was adopted. In the tragical period of repressions 1937-1953 the georgian alphabet was used for abkhazian. In 1953 the modernized version of the first alphabet was returned. Slight changes were imposed within the last decade.
The main Abkhazian writers of the first generation (the begining of the 20-th century) are Dyrmit (Dmitri) Urys-ipa (Esyf-ipa) Gulia, Iwa Abas-ipa Koghonia, Samson Kwagw-ipa Chanba, Mikha Ahmat-ipa Lakrba, Dzadz Khwanakya-ipa Darsalia, Mushni Lawrent-ipa Ahashba, Ivan Binaququ-ipa Papaskyyr, Lewarsa Bida-ipa Kutsnia, Leonti Bakhwa-ipa Labakhuwa, Stepan Mikha-ipa Kuchberia, Kyaazym Agumaa.One of the outstanding Abkhazian writers is Bagrat Wasil-ipa Shinkwba who wrote the greatest Abkhazian novel "The last of the departed" ("Ацынҵәарах") which is dedicated to westcaucasian muhajirs and first of all to the extinct Ubykh people. The new generation of Abkhazian writers is represented by Alyksa Gogua, Shyalodia Ajinjal, Mushni Laswria, Vitali Amarshan and others.
The Abkhazian literature has a strong influence of soviet culture and russian literature. In Soviet era a great amount of Abkhazian books was published.
Nowadays Abkhazian literature and Abkhazian writers are going through a hard period of struglle for existance. And even now many books are being published in Abkhazian language in spite of the lack of readers, especially young.