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Apsua grammar Abkhazian phonems

Grammar basics


1. Abkhazian language belongs to the Northcaucasian language family adyga-abkhaz group and is spoken by abkhazians in The Republic of Abkhazia. Also spoken in abkhazian diasporas in Turkey, Russia, some Middle East countries Europe and USA.

2. Verb is a main element of the Abkhazian language. There are many simple verbs as "абара" (root "-ба-") -to see- "ац'ара" (root "ц'а")-to go- "аура"("у") -to do- акра ("к")- to catch, агара("га") - to take, ажра("ж") - to dig, аз'ара ("з' ") - to measure, ас'ра ("с' ") - to beat, афара ("фа") - to eat, ашара ("ша") - to share etc. There are also composed verbs like "Аҟаҵара" "аҭаҵара" "алаҵара" "алхра" "аныхра" "ақәыртәара" "анавагылара" etc.

3.Tenses in the Abkhazian language are demonstrated by endings that are simply attached to the root of the verb. Here is the table of the main tense endings.

-оит(-уеит)Present (continuous) dynamic Настоящее динамическое Сц'оит I am going; I goЯ иду
-упPresent (continuous) static Настоящее статичное Стәоуп I am sittingЯ сижу
-ит(-т)Past indefinite Прошлое cовершенное Сц'еит I wentЯ пошел, ушел
-он(уан)Past (continuous) dynamic Прошлое динамичное Стәон I was sitting downЯ садился
Past (continuous) static Прошлое статичное Стәан I was sittingЯ сидел
-п; -штFuture Будущее Стәап; Стәашт I will sit downЯ сяду
-заауеитFuture (continuous) static Будущее статичное Стәазаауеит I will be sittingЯ буду сидеть
-хьеитPresent perfect Настоящее завершенное Стәахьеит I have satЯ уже сел
-хьанPast perfect Прошлое завершенное Стәахьан I had sat Я тогда уже сидел
4. The construction of Abkhazian infinitive and at the same time the construction of the verbal noun is as follows: <а-“root”-ра>. Examples: абара, ац’ара etc. Also some prefixes and suffixes may be involved, so that the construction may be: <а-“prefix”-“root”-“suffix”-ра>. Examples: Адбалара, ах’ҳәаара etc.

5. A intransitive verb in active form usually consists of pronominal prefix, (some additional prefixes and suffixes may be involved), root and the temporal endings. Examples of intransitive verbs. Each of them has pronominal prefix and temporal ending:
I am going - Сц’оит
You (masculine) are going - Уц’оит
You (feminine) are going – Бц’оит
He (She) is going – Дц’оит
It is going - Иц’оит
We are going – Ҳц’оит
You (plural) are going - Cәц’оит
They are going – Иц’оит
As the pronominal prefixes substitute the pronouns it is not always necessary to use pronouns with active verbs.
Transitive verbs in active form include, beside subject's prefix, include, if the object doesn't precede the verb directly, object's prefix which is always "и-". Examples:
I eat (I am eating) smth - исф`оит
But I am eating a bread - ач`а сфоит
6. The Abkhazian pronouns:
I – Сара
You (masculine) – Уара
You (feminine) – Бара
He – Иара
She – Лара
It – Иара
We - Ҳара
You (plural) - Сәара
They – Дара
The pronominal prefixes that are attached to the verbs root are as follows
I - "с-"
You (masculine) - "у-"
You (feminine) - "б-"
He - "и-"(for transitive verbs)
"д-" (for intransitive verbs) She - "л-"(for transitive verbs)
"д-" (for intransitive verbs) It - "а-"
We - "ҳ-"
You (plural) - "сә-"
They – "р-"
7. Verbal suffixes demonstrate some special meaning: Conditional mood is expressed by the suffixes: "-p", "-зар" "-зҭгьы", "-нда", "-ндаз". Examples: Аҧара имазар, исиҭоит. If he has money, he will give it to me. Аҩныҟа дц’ар иан дибап. If he goes home he will see his mother.
8. Negative forms of the actie verb have their own endings.

-ом; (уам) -ӡом (ӡуам))Present (continuous) dynamic Настоящее динамическое Сц'ом; Сц'аӡом . I am not going; I don't goЯ не иду
-м (ӡам)Present (continuous) static Настоящее статичное Стәам, Стәаӡам I am not sittingЯ не сижу
-м -"root"-ит,-м -"root"-ӡеит Past indefinite Прошлое cовершенное Сымц'еит, Сымц'аӡеит I didn't goЯ не пошел, не ушел
-омызт (-уамызт),-ӡомызт(-ӡуамызт) Past (continuous) dynamic Прошлое динамичное Стәомызт, Стәаӡомызт I was not sitting downЯ не садился
-мызт, ӡамызтPast (continuous) static Прошлое статичное Стәамызт, Стәаӡамызт I was not sittingЯ не сидел
-рым; -шамFuture Будущее Стәарым; Стәашам I will not sit downЯ не сяду
-заарымFuture (continuous) static Будущее статичное Стәазаарым I will not be sittingЯ не буду сидеть
м -"root"-ц(т), м -"root"-ӡац(т)Present perfect Настоящее завершенное Сымтәац; Сымтәаӡац I have not satЯ еще не сел
-м -"root"-цызт, м -"root"-ӡацызтPast perfect Прошлое завершенное Сымтәацызт; Сымтәаӡацызт I had not sat Я тогда еще не сидел

9. Imperative mood in abkhazian has two types. a) For transitive verbs b) For intransitive verbs.
a) Imperative form of a transitive verb for singular second person is as follows "и"-"root". "И" in the begining stands for the unreasonable object that is an aim of the action. If the object is reasonable (human being), than "и" is replaced by "д". The root is oftenly shortened in imperative form. Examples: Ига (игы) - take (this), Иф - eat (this), Иба (ибы) - see (this),Изә - drink (this) but Дга (дгы) - take him or her, Дшьы - kill him or her. Imperative form of a transitive verb for plural second person is as follows исә(зә)-"root".Изәга (изәгы) - take (this), Исәфа, Исәфы - eat (this), Изәба (изәбы) - see (this), Изәзәы - drink (this) but Дызәга (дызәгы) - take him or her, Дысәшьы.
b) imperative form of intransitive verb is "subject prefix"-"root". Examples - "Уц'а" - go (you man) "Бц'а" - go (you woman) "Cәц'а" - go you (plural).
c) Specific imperative forms has a verb "to give". Give me - исыҭ;, give me (plural) - исысәҭ, give her - илыҭ, give him - иҭ, give us - иҳаҭ, give them - ирыҭ. Plural imperative give, us, give her and give him - иҳасәҭ, илысәҭ, исәҭ.


Abkhazian numbers

  1. One – Акы
  2. Two - Ҩба
  3. Three - Хҧа
  4. Four - Ҧшьба
  5. Five - Хәба
  6. Six - Фба
  7. Seven - Быжьба
  8. Eight - Ааба
  9. Nine - Зәба
  10. Ten - Жәаба
11. More information abkhazian grammar you will find in other sections.

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